Monthly Archives: August 2018

Can cardio exercise boost metabolism better than strength training?

exercise, healthAny kind of movement is good for health. Studies have shown time and again that sitting is bad for health. But, is one kind of exercise better than the other when it comes to weight loss? This is a controversial topic since some studies show that strength training can keep calories burning long after your workout. However, a recent study has shown that cardio exercise may actually be better than strength training in boosting metabolism.

Cardio exercise versus strength training

Cardio exercise, or aerobic activity, is a type of exercise that gets your heart rate up. It gets you to breathe faster and deeper, in turn getting more oxygen in your blood. Cardio exercise is best known for improving the overall health of your heart and lungs. Experts recommend that you engage in some cardio exercise for at least 30 minutes a day for most days of the week.

Types of cardio exercises include walking, running, cycling, swimming, team sports, and dancing, to name a few. Cardio exercises are known for burning more calories per minute than strength training and is also great for stress management. Not to mention that cardio training can help reduce risk of chronic diseases like heart disease and diabetes.

On the other hand, strength training exercises aim to increase your bone and muscle strength. Examples of such exercises include free weight exercises or resistance training like push-ups, to name a few.

Research has found that strength training can help you burn an additional 25-percent of calories you burned during your workout even after you have finished your workout. Therefore, if you burn 100 calories during your strength training workout, then you will burn an additional 25 calories in the hours after your workout for a total of 125 calories burned.

Typically, it is recommended to balance out your fitness routine with both cardio and strength training exercises. This will ensure you can reap the benefits of both types of exercises.

Cardio for faster metabolism

Recent research looked at the effects of cardio and strength training exercises on certain health markers. Two groups of people had either a 60-minute cardio or 60-minute strength training workout to complete. After the workout, their blood was tested for lactic acid, blood sugar, bile, and hormone levels.  Study results show that those who did the cardio exercise had higher levels of the hormone FGF21. This hormone plays a role in boosting metabolism. Those who did the cardio workout had tripled their FGF21 level from baseline, while those who did strength training saw no increase.

Other ways to boost metabolism

Besides boosting your cardio routine, there are other small changes you can make to your lifestyle to speed up your metabolism.

  • Spice up your diet: Research shows that capsaicin, the active  component of chili peppers, can increase calorie burning by 50 calories a day.
  • Take a metabolism boosting supplement:  Sometimes a supplement that supports the thyroid may help boost metabolism. An example of this is Thyradol by Vita Sciences. Thyradol contains ashwagandha that helps enhance levels of the thyroid hormone T4. You should contact your healthcare provider before starting any new supplement.
  • Eat more harder to digest foods: Foods that are more complex in their structure can help the body burn more calories during digestion. This is called diet-induced thermogenesis.  Foods higher in fiber and protein are examples of such foods. Foods that are more refined, like processed carbohydrates, will not have this same effect. Therefore, aim for eating lots of complex carbohydrates like high fiber fruits and vegetables that have a 20-percent thermic effect.  This means that for every 100 calories of these foods you eat, your body will use 20 calories to break down and digest these foods. Aim for at least 2 cups of fruits and vegetables each day. Also, be sure to consume plenty of protein from animal and/or plant-based sources., which have a 30-percent thermic effect.

-written by Staci Gulbin, MS, MEd, RD, LDN

References:

Healthline (accessed August 29, 2018) “Metabolism Boosters: Weight Loss Fact or Fiction?”

Mayo Clinic (August 10, 2017) “Fitness training: elements of a well-rounded routine.” 

Petter, O. (August 25, 2018) “Cardio Boosts Metabolism More Than Strength Training , Study Claims.” 

Plosser, L. (accessed August 29, 2018) “Cardio vs. Strength Training: Which One is Most Effective?”

Williams, J. (October 3, 2017) “How Many Calories Does Digestion Use Up?” 


  • Can alcohol intake increase your appetite?

    After a long, hard week you may be reaching for a nice, cold beer or a glass of wine. Sure, an alcoholic drink can take the edge off and lower your stress for a bit. However, it could increase your appetite and make healthy eating very hard to do. A recent study shows that this overeating caused by alcohol could be due to a gene that is activated by alcohol consumption.

    wine, health, alcoholAbout alcohol

    Alcohol has been enjoyed for thousands of years since about the 5th century AD.  This type of drink comes in many forms and flavors, is a central nervous system depressant that can relax the mind and body upon consumption. It is absorbed quickly from the stomach and small intestine into the bloodstream. Drinking too much though can impair mobility and cognition in the short-term. If consumed in excess over many years can increase risk of liver disease.

    Ethanol is the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks. This substance is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugar, and starches into alcohol.  The way that ethanol affects you depends on a variety of factors including age, weight, how much you ate before drinking, and use of medications, to name a few. Regardless of these factors, the recommended maximum intake of alcohol for moderate consumption is 14 standard drinks a week for men and 7 standard drinks a week for women. One standard drink is equal to (ABV=alcohol by volume):

    • 12 ounces beer (5% ABV)
    • 8 ounces of malt liquor (7% ABV)
    • 5 ounces of wine (12% ABV)
    • 1.5 ounces of liquor (40% ABV)

    Alcohol and appetite

    Drinking alcohol often occurs in establishments which serve unhealthy fare as french fries, nachos, hot wings, and other fried foods.  This type of food is thought to help those who are drinking to sober up. Research has found that all types of protein, fat, and carbohydrates can help you sober up after drinking, as long as you eat something.

    So, what if you don’t feel like eating after drinking? A recent study has found that this is an unlikely outcome. This is because alcohol triggers a neuron signal found in both animals and humans that increases appetite.  Starvation normally activates this neuron, known as Agrp, to increase a person’s motivation for eating.  However, ethanol can also activate these neurons.  This can explain why you may be extra hungry after a few drinks at the bar.

    If this type of drinking and eating becomes a pattern, it could lead to weight gain and heart health issues over time. Therefore, it is important that if you do drink alcohol, that you do so in moderation and make sure you limit eating too many unhealthy foods while drinking.

    Staying healthy during social hour

    Since hunger seems to be inevitable after drinking, week after week of this behavior may impact your health in a not-so-healthy way. Therefore, use the following tips to have your drink and stay healthy too.

    • Choose healthier food to munch on while drinking: Instead of fried foods, opt for a veggie plate with celery, carrots, and salad dressing. Or you could get a turkey burger without a bun topped with tons of vegetables like lettuce and tomato. Other options like baked chips and salsa, grilled chicken wings, or fruit salad are found at some bars and could be healthier drinking snack options.
    • Drink lots of water:  Drinking alcohol can dehydrate you since it reduces the activation of the hormone known as ADH or anti-diuretic hormone. When it does this, the kidneys do not reabsorb as much water, so you urinate more. Over time, this can cause you to become dehydrated. Water is needed for many aspects of health, so if you do drink alcohol, drink plenty of water with it.
    • Find other ways to relax: If drinking wine or beer is a way for you to relax, perhaps try not to do it so much. Find other ways to relax such as walking, reading, yoga, meditation, or exercising, among other things.  You could also take a supplement such as Elevia by Vita Sciences that increases your “feel-good” hormone serotonin to help you relax. Elevia contains ingredients such as GABA and 5-htp to help calm your body and mind.

    -written by Staci Gulbin, MS, MEd, RD, LDN

    References:

    Cains, S., Blomeley, C., Kollo, M., Racz, R., and Burdakov, D. (2017) “Agrp neuron activity is required for alcohol-induced overeating.” Nature Communications, 8:14014.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (March 29, 2018) “Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions.”

    Freudenrich, Ph.D., C. (accessed August 21, 2018) “How Alcohol Works.” How Stuff Works online.

    Gowin, Ph.D., J. (September 15, 2013) “What’s the Best Meal to Sober up after drinking?” Psychology Today online.


  • Could chocolate be heart healthy?

    chocolate, cacao, antioxidant, heart healthCould it be?  Could the delicious sweetness of chocolate actually be good for you? The answer is yes, but in moderation.  Chock full of antioxidants, this delicious treat may be able to help you combat heart disease.  A recent study has shown that moderate consumption of chocolate can reduce risk of heart disease.

    Where does chocolate come from?

    Chocolate has been enjoyed for thousands of years as far back as the ancient Mayan and Aztec civilizations. They revered this delicious treat as the “food of the gods” and Central American Mayan Indians drank a spicy drink made from roasted cacao beans. Chocolate was enjoyed exclusively in this liquid form until Victorian times when it was devised as a solid food treat.

    The basic form of solid chocolate is made from cocoa, cocoa butter from the cocoa bean, and sometimes up to 5-percent vegetable fat. More processed and lesser quality products will usually contain more fat and sugar and less cacao.

    Chocolate and heart health

    A recent meta-analysis study looked at 23 studies with over 400,000 adults, with 35,000 cases of heart disease.  Study results show that eating chocolate in moderation may actually reduce heart disease risk. When talking about moderate consumption of chocolate, this study defines it as 100 grams of chocolate per week. This is equal to about 2 standard chocolate bars.  When chocolate consumption exceeded 100 grams per week, chronic disease risk such as stroke risk and heart disease risk started to increase.

    When choosing to consume chocolate as part of a heart healthy diet, be sure to look at the ingredients label.  Try to choose chocolate foods that are lower in sugar and higher in cacao. This is because added fat and sugar can make chocolate higher in calories with no real added nutrient benefit.

    A higher cacao content can increase the concentration of antioxidants in chocolate. Cacao beans contains antioxidants known as flavonoids that are also found in various fruits and vegetables. These antioxidants can help improve blood pressure as well as improve blood flow to the heart. This in turn can help reduce risk of heart disease and related chronic diseases. Therefore, lean towards higher cacao percentage (around 70-percent or higher) and lower sugar content for the most health benefit.

    Other heart healthy tips

    Besides eating chocolate for heart health reduction, which is perhaps the most delicious medicine ever, there are other steps you can take to reduce your risk.

    • Eat plenty of colorful fruits and vegetables every day. This is because fruits and vegetables contain a slew of different antioxidants that can lower oxidative stress in the body’s cells. when you reduce the oxidative stress in the body, then you lower the risk of cell damage. When less cells are damaged, you can lower your chronic disease risk. Therefore, you should try to get at least 2 cups each of fruits and vegetables each day (or more!) for optimal health benefit.  Also, add in more fruits and vegetables for in-between meal snacks instead of sweets to help increase your total fiber and nutrient intake daily.
    • Stay active every day. This doesn’t mean you have to train for a marathon or attend boot camp classes. Just try to get your muscles moving every day by taking walks, going outside and gardening, or visiting your local community center for aerobic or dance classes each week.  A healthy level of activity would be to get at least 30 minutes each day of moderate activity for at least 5 days a week. You can do this exercise in shorter segments. Five minutes here and ten minutes there all counts towards this 30 minutes. And moderate activity is any exercise that increases your rate of breathing a bit and where you can carry a conversation, but can’t sing.
    • Take a heart healthy supplement each day. Sometimes the food you eat does not provide all the nutrients you need to stay your healthiest. In some cases, you may have vitamin deficiencies such as vitamin D or B12 deficiency that could affect your overall health status and well-being. That is why a multivitamin may be the right choice for you to help fill in the nutrition gaps. An example of a great multivitamin is Zestia by Vita Sciences. Zestia provides a comprehensive formula of 45 fruits and vegetables, a daily dose of a variety of essential vitamins and nutrients, as well as probiotics.

    -written by Staci Gulbin, MS, MEd, RD, LDN

    References:

    Cadbury (accessed August 15, 2018) “What is chocolate?”

    Ren, Y., et al (2018) “Moderate consumption of chocolate may reduce CVD risk.” 


  • Could it be that men have weight loss faster than women?

    Sometimes it may seem that over the same period of time, on the same diet and exercise regimen, that men lose weight quicker than women.  Some say that men have more muscle mass, so their metabolism is higher.  Others say that it has to do with hormones. So, what is the real reason behind this phenomenon, and is it even a real phenomenon?  A recent study found that men with prediabetes lost significantly more weight over eight weeks than women with prediabetes.  Let’s explore why this may be.

    What is prediabetes?

    Those with prediabetes have a higher than normal blood glucose level. However, they are not at the point where their blood glucose status qualifies as diabetes.  A diagnosis like this might be scary, but it can be a good thing.  When you are given a diagnosis of prediabetes, there is a chance to reverse your risk of diabetes by changing lifestyle factors.  With the guidance of a qualified health professional, you can tweak your diet and increase your physical activity to help you lose weight and lower your blood glucose levels.

    In most cases, after such a diagnosis, you will be asked to come back for a retest of your blood glucose labs in 3 to 6 months to make sure everything is moving in the right direction. Some doctors may put you on medications such as metformin to help with this if diet and exercise alone is not helping.

    Men weight loss faster than women?

    weight loss, weight, health, scaleA recent study of 2000 overweight men and women with prediabetes looked at the effects of a low-calorie diet. After eight weeks, the men in the study lost significantly more weight than women and had larger reductions in their metabolic score, which is a marker for diabetes.  In addition, the men had greater loss of fat mass and lower heart rate after eight weeks on the diet. However, women did have the upper hand on some health markers. In fact, women had a larger reduction in hip circumference, lean body mass, and pulse pressure than men.

    Researchers suggest that it is clear that men benefited more from this low calorie diet than women. However, longer term studies will need to be done to figure out exactly why. Theories suggest that women may have a harder time losing weight since they store fat more easily than men.  Also, women have less muscle mass than men, which can affect metabolism. Finally, women are more prone than men to yo-yo dieting, which can negatively affect long-term weight loss success.

    Strategies for weight loss 

    Just because the weight loss odds seem to be against women, that does not mean that successful long-term weight loss is impossible. Follow the strategies to help you lose weight, no matter your gender.

    • Eat enough fiber each day. Only one in ten Americans eat the minimum recommended amount of fruits and vegetables daily. This low fiber intake can impact digestive health, heart health, and overall quality of the diet. Fruits and veggies also contain antioxidants that can help lower risk of chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease by reducing oxidative stress and related cell damage. Therefore, be sure to get plenty of veggies and fruits in your meals and snacks. You can add spinach or tomatoes to your eggs for breakfast, or throw in fruit and veggies into a morning smoothie. For meals, grab some frozen veggies that you can steam in less than 10-15 minutes, depending on the veggie.  For snacks, crunch on some baby carrots and apple slices, or enjoy some berries or grapes.
    • Move more each day.  Many of us have jobs that require sitting for most of the day. Therefore, make it a point to take the stairs, take a walk during lunch if you can, and/or make time in the evening to take a walk after dinner or take an aerobics class at your local community center. Every step will help you burn more calories, keep your heart strong, and help you lose weight.
    • Try a supplement regimen. Low vitamin D, B12, or iron can affect your health status, and in turn impact energy levels and weight loss.  You should have your labs tested to see if you may have a nutrient deficiency.  Also, if you have prediabetes, a supplement like Glucarex may help as well. Glucarex by Vita Sciences contains chromium, alpha lipoic acid, and cinnamon, which can support healthy weight loss metabolism, and blood glucose levels.
    • Surround yourself with support. Long-term weight loss success is often seen in those with social support systems in place. Whether you engage your family in more healthy meals, have family walks, have a weight loss buddy at work, or join a support group, support can make the difficult act of losing weight a little easier. Not only that, but support can help you stay accountable and on track with your goals. Also, having a qualified healthcare team of doctors and dietitians can help you stay on the right path to health.

    -written by Staci Gulbin, MS, MEd, RD, LDN

    References:

    Asian News International (August 8, 2018) “Low calorie diet, men tend to lose more weight than women.” 

    Centers for Disease Control (November 16, 2017) “Only 1 in 10 Adults Get Enough Fruits or Vegetables.”

    Joslin Diabetes Center (accessed August 8, 2018) “Diet Strategies for Women with Diabetes: Why Some Work and Some Don’t.”

    Mayo Clinic (August 2, 2017) “Prediabetes.” 

     

     


  • Could breastfeeding and probiotics help infant gut health?

    breastfeeding, world breastfeeding week, healthProbiotics are getting more press each and every day for their health benefits. From skin health, improving bone health, and of course, enhancing gut health, the possibilities seem endless. In fact, a recent study shows that combining a probiotic with breastfeeding in the first year of life can have improvements in the gut health of infants.

    Basics of probiotics

    Probiotics are simply any bacteria, fungi, or other living organism that has the potential to improve health to the host. The health of the body depends on a balance of different bacteria in the gut.  An imbalance could lead to health problems such as gas, bloating, constipation, and other gut health issues.  You can maintain a good balance of probiotics in the gut by consuming a diverse probiotic supplement every day. You can find good bacteria in fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, or kimchi as well.

    To feed such probiotics, it is important to consume plenty of fruits, vegetables, and healthy whole grains like oats or wheat bran.  Prebiotic foods like these are important to maintain healthy levels of good bacteria.  Together, probiotics and prebiotics can improve the health of the gut, immune system, and in turn overall health.

    Breastfeeding and probiotics

    A certain type of bacteria, known as Bifidobacterium infantis, is found naturally in the gut of infants upon birth.  This bacterium helps to keep the gut healthy. It is usually in lower concentrations in the gut of babies from developed countries. This bacterium is nourished by breast milk from the infant’s mother, acting in the same way a typical prebiotic food would to a probiotic strain.

    A study of mothers and breastfed infants looked at the effect of Bifidobacterium infantis supplements on infant’s gut health.  One group of mothers and babies received the supplement with lactation support from day 7 to 21 after birth.  Meanwhile, the other group received only lactation support.  Study results show that those given the probiotic had positive changes in the make-up of the infant feces for up to a year after treatment. During this year, the “good” bacteria crowded out “bad” bacteria linked with asthma, allergies, and other immune-related diseases. This study suggests that this probiotic, upon further study, could help prevent immune-related diseases in babies from developed countries.

    Which probiotic should I take?

    There are so many types of probiotics on the market today. This can make it confusing to know which one to choose. Every probiotic strain has its unique benefits, so you may want to do your research before choosing one.  A qualified alternative healthcare provider, such as a naturopath, may be able to assist you in making your choice.

    Regardless of which strains you choose, a diverse group of strains is recommended.  Diversity of bacteria is important to help your gut create a balanced population.  Also,  a capsule or other medium will allow optimal survival of the bacteria as it travels to your gut.  One example of a high quality probiotic is Biovia 30 by Vita Sciences.  This probiotic contains 30 billion colony forming units of bacteria and 10 different strains.  Furthermore, Biovia 30 can help boost the immune system and improve digestive health with regular use.

    -written by Staci Gulbin, MS, MEd, RD, LDN

    References:

    Healthline (accessed July 31, 2018) “The 19 Best Prebiotic Foods You Should Eat.”

    Nagpal, R., et al. (2012) “Probiotics, their health benefits and applications for developing healthier foods: a review.” FEMS Microbiology Letters, 334(2012): 1-15.

    National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (accessed May 17, 2018) “Probiotics: In Depth.”

    Science Daily (June 9, 2018) “Bifidobacteria supplement colonizes gut of breastfed infants.”